LFSR – Linear Feedback Shift Register

LFSR logic is commonly used in hardware and software to generate pseudo-random data. An n-bit LFSR cycles between as many as 2^n - 1 unique, non-zero states.

In some contexts, the output of the LFSR is considered a single bit, the state of the right-most register in these examples. In other situations, the output is the state of all of the registers.

Two configurations are possible: Galois (also known as type 2), and Fibonacci (also known as type 1). The single bit output at the right-most register is identical for both configurations. The output at the other bit positions differ, but only by a time delay. The time delay for each bit position can be found by inspection for the Fibonacci configuration, and with a calculation for the Galois configuration, as shown below.

Both Galois and Fibonacci configurations can be drawn with left shifting registers or right shifting registers. But the choice of shift direction is not important. Because no inherently directional operation such as carry propagation is involved, the operation of the two mirror each other. The shift direction used here has been chosen to accommodate comparing the Galois and Fibonacci configurations.

Galois configuration for polynomial x^10 + x^3 + 1

The state of the LFSR at time t can be written in terms of the previous state. The equations are found by inspection of the circuit:

g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) (1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g1 (t-1) g3 (t) = g2 (t-1) ^ g9(t-1) g4 (t) = g3 (t-1) g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1)

In matrix form, the current state is multiplied by the matrix to give the next state. Each bit in the current state selects a row in the matrix. The selected rows are exclusive ored together to produce the next state.

0000000010 0000000100 0000001000 0000010000 0000100000 0001000000 0010000000 01000000001000000000 0000001001

Fibonacci configuration for polynomial x^10 + x^3 + 1

The state of the LFSR at time t can be written in terms of the previous state. The equations are found by inspection of the circuit:

f0 (t) = f1 (t-1) (2) f1 (t) = f2 (t-1) f2 (t) = f3 (t-1) f3 (t) = f4 (t-1) f4 (t) = f5 (t-1) f5 (t) = f6 (t-1) f6 (t) = f7 (t-1) f7 (t) = f8 (t-1) f8 (t) = f9 (t-1) f9 (t) = f0 (t-1) ^ f3 (t-1)

The next state matrix for the Fibonacci configuration:

1000000000 000000000100000000101000000100 0000001000 0000010000 0000100000 0001000000 0010000000 0100000000

The next state matrix of one LFSR configuration is the transpose of the next state matrix of the other configuration.

The LFSRs cycle through the following states when the registers are initially loaded with 0000000001:

Galois Fibonacci

t g9······g0 f9······f00 0000000001 0000000001 1 0000000010 1000000000 2 0000000100 0100000000 3 0000001000 0010000000 4 0000010000 0001000000 5 0000100000 0000100000 6 0001000000 0000010000 7 0010000000 0000001000 8 0100000000 1000000100 9 1000000000 0100000010 10 0000001001 0010000001 11 0000010010 1001000000 12 0000100100 0100100000 13 0001001000 0010010000 14 0010010000 0001001000 15 0100100000 1000100100 (complete listing)

1007 1001011101 0011010011 1008 0010110011 1001101001 1009 0101100110 0100110100 1010 1011001100 0010011010 1011 0110010001 1001001101 1012 1100100010 0100100110 1013 1001001101 0010010011 1014 0010010011 1001001001 1015 0100100110 0100100100 1016 1001001100 0010010010 1017 0010010001 0001001001 1018 0100100010 0000100100 1019 1001000100 0000010010 1020 0010000001 0000001001 1021 0100000010 0000000100 1022 1000000100 0000000010 <cycle repeats starting here>

Equivalence of Galois and Fibonacci configurations for polynomial x^10 + x^3 + 1

Notice that the output, when taken as the single right-most register, is the same for both configurations. This is true in general, and can be demonstrated by writing the output equations for the right-most register of both configurations in terms of previous values of the register. For the Fibonacci configuration, start with equations (2) and solve for f0 (t) as a function of f0 at times t-1 through t-10:

f0 (t) = f1 (t-1) f0 (t) = f2 (t-2) f0 (t) = f3 (t-3) f0 (t) = f4 (t-4) f0 (t) = f5 (t-5) f0 (t) = f6 (t-6) f0 (t) = f7 (t-7) f0 (t) = f8 (t-8) f0 (t) = f9 (t-9) f0 (t) = f0 (t-10) ^ f3 (t-10) f0 (t) = f0 (t-10) ^ f0 (t-7) f1 (t) = f0 (t+1) = f0 (t-9) ^ f0 (t-6) f2 (t) = f0 (t+2) = f0 (t-8) ^ f0 (t-5) f3 (t) = f0 (t+3) = f0 (t-7) ^ f0 (t-4) f4 (t) = f0 (t+4) = f0 (t-6) ^ f0 (t-3) f5 (t) = f0 (t+5) = f0 (t-5) ^ f0 (t-2) f6 (t) = f0 (t+6) = f0 (t-4) ^ f0 (t-1) f7 (t) = f0 (t+7) = f0 (t-3) ^ f0 (t-0) = f0 (t-3) ^ f0 (t-10) ^ f0 (t-7) f8 (t) = f0 (t+8) = f0 (t-2) ^ f0 (t+1) = f0 (t-2) ^ f0 (t-9) ^ f0 (t-6) f9 (t) = f0 (t+9) = f0 (t-1) ^ f0 (t+2) = f0 (t-1) ^ f0 (t-8) ^ f0 (t5) f0 (t) = f0 (t-10) ^ f0 (t-7) (3) f1 (t) = f0 (t-9) ^ f0 (t-6) f2 (t) = f0 (t-8) ^ f0 (t-5) f3 (t) = f0 (t-7) ^ f0 (t-4) f4 (t) = f0 (t-6) ^ f0 (t-3) f5 (t) = f0 (t-5) ^ f0 (t-2) f6 (t) = f0 (t-4) ^ f0 (t-1) f7 (t) = f0 (t-10) ^ f0 (t-7) ^ f0 (t-3) f8 (t) = f0 (t-9) ^ f0 (t-6) ^ f0 (t-2) f9 (t) = f0 (t-8) ^ f0 (t-5) ^ f0 (t-1) The coefficients for the terms in the above equations can also be found with a calculation:

t-1···t-10 calculation p10······p0 p9······p0 f0 0000001001gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,1 f1 0000010010 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,10 f2 0000100100 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,100 f3 0001001000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,1000 f4 0010010000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,10000 f5 0100100000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,100000 f61001000000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,1000000 f7 0010001001gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,10000000 f8 0100010010 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,100000000 f91000100100 gf2util modmul,10000001001,0000001001,1000000000 For the Galois configuration, start with equations (1) and solve for g0 (t) as a function of g0 at times t-1 through t-10:

g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g1 (t-1) g3 (t) = g2 (t-1) ^ g9 (t-1) g4 (t) = g3 (t-1) g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) =g0 (t-2)g3 (t) = g2 (t-1) ^ g9 (t-1) g4 (t) = g3 (t-1) g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g2 (t-1) ^g0 (t)g4 (t) = g3 (t-1) g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) =g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t)g4 (t) = g3 (t-1) g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) =g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1)g5 (t) = g4 (t-1) g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) =g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2)g6 (t) = g5 (t-1) g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) =g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3)g7 (t) = g6 (t-1) g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) =g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4)g8 (t) = g7 (t-1) g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) =g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5)g9 (t) = g8 (t-1) g0 (t) = g9 (t-1) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) g9 (t) =g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6)g0 (t) =g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7)g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) g9 (t) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) g0 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-3) ^g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7)g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) g9 (t) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) g0 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) (4) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-3) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) g9 (t) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6)

The coefficients for the terms in the above equations can also be found with a calculation:

t-1···t-10 p10······p0 g11000000000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,01000000000,1 g2 0100000000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00100000000,1 g3 0010001001gf2util modmul,10000001001,10010000000,1 g41001000000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,01001000000,1 g5 0100100000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00100100000,1 g6 0010010000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00010010000,1 g7 0001001000 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00001001000,1 g8 0000100100 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00000100100,1 g9 0000010010 gf2util modmul,10000001001,00000010010,1 g0 0000001001gf2util modmul,10000001001,00000001001,1

The above shows that for the LFSR using polynomial x^10 + x^3 + 1, the output of the right-most register is the same for both the Galois and Fibonacci configurations.

Converting a Fibonacci state to the corresponding Galois state To convert a Fibonacci state into the corresponding Galois state, the equations for the Galois state must be written in terms of the current Fibonacci state, f0 (t) through f6(t). The current Fibonacci state holds future register zero states: f0 (t) = f0 (t+0) f1 (t) = f0 (t+1) f2 (t) = f0 (t+2) f3 (t) = f0 (t+3) f4 (t) = f0 (t+4) f5 (t) = f0 (t+5) f6 (t) = f0 (t+6) f7 (t) = f0 (t+7) f8 (t) = f0 (t+8) f9 (t) = f0 (t+9) Start with equations (4) and write the Galois state in terms of future register zero states g0 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-3) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) g9 (t) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) Equations used to shift t-10 through t-1 references to t+0 through t+9: 0 = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t+0) 0 = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t+1) 0 = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t+2) 0 = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t+3) 0 = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+4) 0 = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t+5) 0 = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t+6) 0 = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+0) ^ g0 (t+7) 0 = g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t+1) ^ g0 (t+8) 0 = g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t+2) ^ g0 (t+9) g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) = g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t+2) ^ g0 (t+9) = g0 (t+2) ^ g0 (t+9) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) = g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t+1) ^ g0 (t+8) = g0 (t+1) ^ g0 (t+8) g3 (t) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-3) = g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t-10) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t+0) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+0) = g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+0) ^ g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+0) ^ g0 (t+7) = g0 (t+7) g4 (t) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) = g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-1) ^ g0 (t+6) = g0 (t+6) g5 (t) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) = g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-2) ^ g0 (t+5) = g0 (t+5) g6 (t) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) = g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-3) ^ g0 (t+4) = g0 (t+4) g7 (t) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) = g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t-7) ^ g0 (t-4) ^ g0 (t+3) = g0 (t+3) g8 (t) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) = g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t-8) ^ g0 (t-5) ^ g0 (t+2) = g0 (t+2) g9 (t) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) = g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t-9) ^ g0 (t-6) ^ g0 (t+1) = g0 (t+1) g0 (t) = g0 (t) g1 (t) = g0 (t+2) ^ g0 (t+9) g2 (t) = g0 (t+1) ^ g0 (t+8) g3 (t) = g0 (t+7) g4 (t) = g0 (t+6) g5 (t) = g0 (t+5) g6 (t) = g0 (t+4) g7 (t) = g0 (t+3) g8 (t) = g0 (t+2) g9 (t) = g0 (t+1)

g0 (t) = f0 (t) g1 (t) = f0 (t+2) ^ f0 (t+9) g2 (t) = f0 (t+1) ^ f0 (t+8) g3 (t) = f0 (t+7) g4 (t) = f0 (t+6) g5 (t) = f0 (t+5) g6 (t) = f0 (t+4) g7 (t) = f0 (t+3) g8 (t) = f0 (t+2) g9 (t) = f0 (t+1) g0 (t) = f0 (t) (5) g1 (t) = f2 (t) ^ f9 (t) g2 (t) = f1 (t) ^ f8 (t) g3 (t) = f7 (t) g4 (t) = f6 (t) g5 (t) = f5 (t) g6 (t) = f4 (t) g7 (t) = f3 (t) g8 (t) = f2 (t) g9 (t) = f1 (t)

The coefficients for the terms in the above equations can also be found with a calculation involving the polynomial and coefficients from equations (4):

f0······f9 p0······p10 t-10···t-1 g01000000000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,1001000000,10000000000 g1 0010000001gf2util modmul,10010000001,0000000001,10000000000 g2 0100000010 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0000000010,10000000000 g3 0000000100 gf2util modmul,10010000001,1001000100,10000000000 g4 0000001000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0000001001,10000000000 g5 0000010000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0000010010,10000000000 g6 0000100000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0000100100,10000000000 g7 0001000000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0001001000,10000000000 g8 0010000000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0010010000,10000000000 g9 0100000000 gf2util modmul,10010000001,0100100000,10000000000

Converting a Galois state to the corresponding Fibonacci state

To convert a Galois state into the corresponding Fibonacci state, stare with equations (5) and solve for f0 (t) - f9 (t) in terms of g0 (t) - g9 (t):

To convert a Galois state into the corresponding Fibonacci state, stare with equations (5) and solve for f0 (t) - f9 (t) in terms of g0 (t) - g9 (t):

g0 (t) = f0 (t) g1 (t) = f2 (t) ^ f9 (t) g2 (t) = f1 (t) ^ f8 (t) g3 (t) = f7 (t) g4 (t) = f6 (t) g5 (t) = f5 (t) g6 (t) = f4 (t) g7 (t) = f3 (t) g8 (t) = f2 (t) g9 (t) = f1 (t)

f0 (t) = g0 (t) f1 (t) = g9 (t) f2 (t) = g8 (t) f3 (t) = g7 (t) f4 (t) = g6 (t) f5 (t) = g5 (t) f6 (t) = g4 (t) f7 (t) = g3 (t) f8 (t) = g2 (t) ^ f1 (t) = g2 (t) ^ g9 (t) f9 (t) = g1 (t) ^ f2 (t) = g1 (t) ^ g8 (t)

f0 (t) = g0 (t) (6) f1 (t) = g9 (t) f2 (t) = g8 (t) f3 (t) = g7 (t) f4 (t) = g6 (t) f5 (t) = g5 (t) f6 (t) = g4 (t) f7 (t) = g3 (t) f8 (t) = g2 (t) ^ g9 (t) f9 (t) = g1 (t) ^ g8 (t) The coefficients for the terms in the above equations can also be found with a calculation involving the polynomial:

g0······g9 f01000000000 p10·····p1 f1 0000000001gf2util divide,1000000000,1000000100f2 0000000010gf2util divide,10000000000,1000000100f3 0000000100gf2util divide,100000000000,1000000100f4 0000001000gf2util divide,1000000000000,1000000100f5 0000010000gf2util divide,10000000000000,1000000100f6 0000100000gf2util divide,100000000000000,1000000100f7 0001000000gf2util divide,1000000000000000,1000000100f8 0010000001gf2util divide,10000000000000000,1000000100f9 0100000010gf2util divide,100000000000000000,1000000100

Finding the time delay between LFSR stages

It can be seen from inspection of the circuit that the output of each Fibonacci stage differs from the output of a neighboring stage by one clock. But for the Galois configuration, the relationship as simple. A brute force approach for finding the delay for a register in the Galois configuration is to solve for each possible delay until one is found that is in the form of a single g0 term.

g1 (t) = g0 (t-1) g2 (t) = g0 (t-2) g3 (t) = g0 (t-1016) g4 (t) = g0 (t-1017) g5 (t) = g0 (t-1018) g6 (t) = g0 (t-1019) g7 (t) = g0 (t-1020) g8 (t) = g0 (t-1021) g9 (t) = g0 (t-1022)